Academic language has a unique collection of rules: it ought to be explicit, formal and factual in addition to objective and analytical in nature.

Top features of Academic Language

Students often genuinely believe that academic language should sound complex and get hard to write and understand but that is certainly not the situation. Instead, academic writing should really be clear and concise in order to communicate its contents when you look at the way that is best.

This site serves as an overview of this popular features of academic language therefore the corresponding language skills which can be needed to understand and make use of language that is academic. These guidelines are meant to assist you to have a clearer understanding of the demands of academic writing and develop skills to enhance your writing that is academic in.

This 3 minute video from Lund University for a quick introduction to academic writing, watch

Formal writing requires effort that is considerable construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments that produce the writing simple to comprehend. In general this means that conversational English must be avoided and facts and figures should always be presented in a clear manner. Academic texts should always be factual, concise and accurate. Choose words precisely and carefully so that the reader can understand the concepts accurately in the text.

It is important to understand that academic texts are written with an academic audience in mind and your writing style needs to adapt to the conventions of the field you are studying.

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In order to achieve the level that is appropriate of, you should read literature inside your field. This may also allow you to learn and employ terms that are subject-specific. Correct use of terminology and language facilitates your communication and heightens the credibility of the work.

The Academic Phrasebank through the University of Manchester is a resource that is rich of that can be used in academic writing.

Contractions:

In English, contractions are utilized in informal settings as they are therefore not suitable for academic texts. In place of using a contraction you ought to write out of the words within their entirety. Listed here are a few examples:

Don’t – do not
Wasn’t – was not
Can’t – cannot (discover that it really is written in one word)
It’s – it really is (take notice of the difference between “it’s” (contraction of “it is”) and the possessive “its” (as in “The dog wagged its tail”)

Acronyms and Abbreviations:

It’s important to use acronyms and abbreviations properly in academic writing which means your text can be as clear as you can for the reader. You need to only use abbreviations when it makes the reading of your text easier. Another rule of thumb is the fact that abbreviated term should appear at least 3 times when you look at the paper. It might be better to spell it out if you use a term more rarely. Words that are commonly abbreviated such as for instance “professor” (prof.) and “department” (dept need someone to write my essay.) ought to be spelled call at academic texts. Note however that some abbreviations may be used in citations and reference lists.

An acronym is a type of abbreviation this is certainly formed by the first letter of each and every word in a phrase or organization. UN and WHO are two types of well-known acronyms. You should always write out the whole name or phrase followed by the acronym in parentheses when you introduce the acronym. Once you’ve introduced it, you might use the acronym in the rest of the text. For example:

The entire world Health Organization (WHO) has expressed concern over the spread of the virus. The Who’s Got therefore….

Latin abbreviations should not be used in the text itself but can be utilized in parentheses or in notes and illustrations.

Analytical

In academic writing, the complexity associated with the subject material is acknowledged through critical analysis. This can be done through asking questions and examining and evidence that is evaluating. Through critical analysis we could add a perspective that is new a subject rather than rewriting what has already been written.

Treating your topic and your material in an manner that is analytical seep through in your language. Part of being analytical in your writing is always to compare and contrast, evaluate and consider both relative sides of an issue. It ensures that you explain, give reasons, draw conclusions, make suggestions and recommendations and support this with evidence.

Academic writing is dependant on research and not regarding the writer’s own opinion about a given topic. When you write objectively you will be worried about facts and not impacted by personal feelings or biases. When presenting a disagreement to the reader, make an effort to show both sides if you can and give a wide berth to making value judgments.

In the same time you will probably want to do an analysis or a discussion plus in that manner express an attitude. In order to convey attitude without the need for for example “I think”, you may use words such as for example apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely and unexpectedly. Keep in mind that the attitude you are expressing shouldn’t be predicated on personal preferences but rather from the evidence that you are presenting.

For more information and samples of subjective and objective language, see this handout from the University of Adelaide.

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Personal pronouns
In general, academic texts are impersonal in general. Which means the emphasis that is main be on evidence and arguments and not based on personal opinion and feelings. The usage personal pronouns such as “I”, “we” and “you” must be avoided whenever you can.

Some forms of academic writing enable the use of personal pronouns. For instance, in reflective writing the use of the pronoun that is personal accepted.

You ought to know that the employment of personal pronouns could be different between academic fields and that some disciplines do not accept it at all. Remember to check what is recommended, either by asking your instructor or by reading other academic texts within your subject.

Active and passive voice
One method of steering clear of the use of personal pronouns is to utilize the passive voice.

A variety was used by me of ways to analyze my material. (Here the “I” is the subject performing the action).

A variety of techniques were used to assess the materials. (This sentence is impersonal plus the action is conducted upon the topic, “A number of techniques”, by an agent that is unnamed. The choice of “the” instead of “my” also serves to really make the sentence more objective).

Use of the passive voice can be somewhat heavy and quite often imprecise. Nowadays, many writers avoid an excessive utilization of the voice that is passive. An easy method of writing objectively and still utilize the active voice is to try using your material, your text or your quest given that agent that is active.